OT historical look

From Journey the Word

“And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the ram's horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him.” -Joshua 6:5


The Book of Joshua begins after the death of Moses and with the crossing of the Jordan River.

   a. The invasion and conquest of Canaan, referred to as the “Period of Conquest” – which lasted 7 years.
   b. The division of the land.
   c. Death of Joshua, his farewell address, and burial.

The command given to Joshua in 1:2 was, “Since Moses is now dead – arise, go over the Jordan with all the people; unto the land given unto you.” 2 ½ tribes stayed East of the Jordan (Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh). Two spies were sent to look over Jericho, who were originally from Shittim, as we see in Joshua 2:1. Joshua was the one who sent the spies, and therefore, he had them hide in the house of the prostitute, who was called Rahab (Joshua 2:1). She was spared, because she did not know them or why they were at her house.

When the feet of the priests touched the brim of the water, the River Jordan rose up in a heap (even at the flooding time of the year), as we see in the text and in Scripture 3:3,13,16. Joshua built Two Memorials unto God to show his appreciation at the crossing of the Jordan: one was Gilgal and the other stood in the Jordan River where the priests had stood.


   1. The Central Campaign
       a. Jericho
       b. Ai
   2. The Southern Campaign
       a. Jerusalem
       b. Hebron
       c. Jarmuth
       d. Lachish
       e. Eglon
   3. The Northern Campaign
       a. Either Merom (Battle), or Hazor (type of “Capital”).

According to the text, The Israelites sampled a victory by God’s supernatural power, however, they were not allowed to retain any spoils. This meant that no one was allowed to keep anything from Jericho, but rather to destroy it except the Vessel for the Treasury of the Lord’s House. Well, going into Ai in their first battle, 36 men had died because of sin in the camp: Achan, a soldier in the army had kept some of the spoils from Jericho (and he was the one who caused Israel to lose their first battle). (Thankfully, for them though, after destroying Achan and his household, The Israelites conquered Ai.)

At the beginning of The Southern Campaign, The Gibeonites entered into a league with the Israelites by deception; claiming to be from a far country. Mt. Hebron was given to Caleb to conquer, which was part of his inheritance. Cities of refuge: -Caddish -Gallein -Remota (Gilead) -Beer -Hebron -Shechem.


-Othniel: When Caleb promises the hand of his daughter Achsah to him (who will conquer the land of Debir), Othniel is the one who arises to the challenge and who becomes Caleb’s son-in-law. -Ehud: Best described as a judge who was sent by God to deliver the Israelites from the Moabite control. -Shamgar: A judge who once completely slaughtered 600 invaders from Philistine with just an ox goad. -Deborah: She led a successful counterattack, as the only woman judge known, against Jabin’s armies. Barak was a helper in assisting this counterattack. -Gideon: God had chosen Gideon, a man of faith he was called by the people, to free the people of Israel and condemn their idolatry. -Abimelech: He claimed his “right” to rule, because his name is interpreted as “my father is the king.” -Tola: None of his deed appear to be recorded in Scripture, but he did judge Israel for 23 years after Abimelech died. -Jair: He had thirty sons, who rode ass colts, and thirty places in Gilead were known as Havoth-Jair. -Jephthah: He led the Israelites in battle against Ammon, and then, after defeating the Ammonites, he fulfilled a foolish promise by sacrificing his daughter. -Ibzan: He judged Israel, had thirty sons and thirty daughters, and then after sending them away, he took in thirty daughters. -Elon: He was from the Tribe of Zebulun and led Israel for ten years. -Abdon: He was of the Tribe of Ephraim, and had forty sons and thirty nephews. -Samson: He was given supernatural strength from God to combat enemies, kill a lion, slay an entire army with only the jawbone of an ass, and destroying a pagan temple – but also had weaknesses including, being attracted to untrustworthy women and his hair (he was powerless without hair).

“In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.” -Judges 17:6

The Book of Judges is known as a book of violence and sadness. The main cause of Israel not having peace and prosperity was because of apostasy in the land. During the Book of Judges, Israel had 13 different judges to rule them and had 2 more in 1 Samuel.

Cyclic nature of man

   1. Sin (especially idolatry)
   2. Servitude (God lets other nations enslave them)
   3. Sorrow (Israel is sorry for what she’s done)
   4. Salvation (God sent a judge to save them)

The primary task of the Judges is organizing and rallying of the people to overcome their oppressors. It is accepted that Samuel wrote the Book.

The main failure of Israel while dealing with the Canaanites was to press for a complete victory when they were strong; they put the Canaanites to tribute and did not utterly drive them out. God left the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, Jebusites, and Philistines to teach Israel war and prove them. Also, so they would learn to obey the commandments of the Lord. The Lord was angry and had them sold into the hand of the King of Mesopotamia; serving him for eight years.


“Where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried: the LORD do so to me, and more also, if ought but death part thee and me.” –Ruth 1:17


This section of Scripture talks about the generations from Pharez to David, to which shows much of the line of David. This seems incomplete, for a more detailed one is in Matthew Chapter 1, which shows people in between some of those listed here. It seems this is just a reference to the “important” ones that came before David. What this also doesn’t explain is how long each lived.


This section of Scripture shows that there is an age difference between Ruth and Boaz, to which Boaz considers himself unattractive to Ruth (and even comments on how such a virtuous woman she is). He was kind enough not to act as “goel” toward Ruth unless she desired it. Seems Ruth didn’t mind about attractiveness, for she was more into honor of Boaz. He offered to do all that she requested. Boaz was concerned after that about a relative closer than he was, so Boaz hesitated any further, but still offered to do what was needed for her at her request. Therefore, Boaz sends Ruth home with provisions, and she speaks to her mother-in-law all about what happened.

Notes from Deuteronomy 25:5-9

This explains a bit about the Scripture in Ruth 3, to which, Boaz was responsible to carry on the family name by marrying a childless widow. It seems this is referring to that law, which Boaz would have to follow in this situation.


In this section of Scripture, we see Boaz asking the nearer kinsman to redeem the land of Naomi and Elimelech. However, when the kinsman heard about the conditions of such bargain, he refused it. The kinsman likely refused it, because he felt a sort of dishonesty. Therefore, it appears Boaz bought all that was Elimelech’s, Chilion’s, and Mahlon’s of the hand of Naomi.

Other notes

The Book of Ruth takes place during the era of the Judges. The Author of Ruth, by Jewish tradition, is Samuel. The Book covers a period of ten years and gives the Jewish genealogy Pharez to David. Boaz redeemed Ruth in a similar manner as Christ redeemed us and made us His Bride. Ruth represents sinner-outsiders who, in themselves, are without hope. Obed was the son of Ruth, and the grandfather of David. he sons of Naomi and Elimelech were Mahlon and Chilion who married Moabite women. The daughters-in-law of Naomi were Orpah and Ruth. Orpah returns to her homeland, but Ruth insists on staying with Naomi, and they journey to Bethlehem.

By Hebrew law, a man must marry his brother’s widow. The sign of “taking off the shoes,” meant agreement. he Book of Ruth is a book of Restoration and contains no wickedness, evil, or cruelty.

1 Samuel

“David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee.” -1 Samuel 17:37


1:2-3, 10-11, 17, 19, 22, 27-28... Hannah comes before the Lord, as we see in Scripture, praying and grieving for a child – to which, she promises to dedicate to the Lord, if He shall bless her with a child. If she is to bear a child, her barrenness would be broken. Hannah became pregnant, then, with Elkanah, she bears Samuel – to which, she dedicates Samuel before the Lord when he’s weaned.

2:1-10... Hannah rejoices and sees the gift, so she praises the giver (God). She contemplates her blessings and looks unto the Lord for further provision. Hannah then speaks a prophecy about the coming Kingdom of God, that is Christ’s Kingdom – to which his enemies will be eradicated.

Trouble in Israel

4:2-7, 17-18.... Israel is smitten before the Philistines, and sin was in the camp, which gave the enemies all they had wished for. They speak angrily of God, and hope to bring the ark into their camp. The Philistines grew afraid, because of “God being in the camp.”

8:1-9... Samuel’s sons were corrupt judges, and although Samuel did not take bribes, however, his sons did. His sons perverted judgment. Samuel was not pleased, and there was a plea for a king to judge, because it reflected upon God. He began praying, and then told them that they shall have a king, even though it wouldn’t bring pleasing results to the Lord.

12:24-25 explain to only fear the Lord, and serve Him in truth with all your heart, for He’s done great things. However, for those that do wickedly, it will consume them. In 13:11-14 shows that those who disobey the commandments of God do so foolishly for themselves, for sin is foolishness and the greatest of sinners are the greatest fools. God saw rebellion in the light of Saul, and therefore, unbelief and distrust was what the others had seen.

Chapter 18... This chapter gives the understanding of the respect that was shown to David by Saul and Jonathan, as well as the servants of Saul, all the people, and in the songs of the women. The friendship of David and Jonathan was an example of grace, I believe, and brings the subject of love up. Those who love the Lord will be willing to join Him in covenant forever. We see the power of God’s grace in David. David, with the harp in hand, aims to serve Saul. However, we see that Saul, with a javelin in hand, an attempt to slay David, but God’s grace appears to be for David, protecting him from harm. Saul tried to hurt David for so long, but we see God’s grace, in fact, is present, for David did not waver from his service to Saul. This caused Saul to begin to fear David, for it seems David was not much afraid of Saul.

Other notes

Ishbaal (or Ish-bosheth) was the second king of Israel, who would replace Saul. He was one of Saul’s sons. We see the calling for one of his sons to be the next king in 16:1, and then in 2 Samuel toward the beginning, we see who it was after all.

2 Samuel

This book gives special emphasis on spiritual walk and fellowship with God. The authors of this book were Nathan and Gad.

For the first 7 ½ years, King David reigned over only the tribe of Judah. David was known for restoring worship to Israel. David had a desire to build a temple, but God would not let him because of the blood shed in which he had been involved. David’s great sin, lusting after Bathsheba caused him to commit a greater sin when he deliberately sent her husband, Uriah to the battlefront where he died.

COVENANT: God declared that the line of David would be enduring, and that it would rule perpetually over the nation. The one condition made was that disobedience would result in chastisement, but it would not void the covenant nonetheless.

Chapter 6: We see in this chapter that David obtained the ark from Baale of Judah, so he can bring it to his own city; however, Uzzah was smitten for his error of touching the ark and died. David was displeased at this and left the ark at the house of Obededom for three months, which brought a blessing to that house. David heard of this and the joy accompanying, and decided to post offerings in its place as well as give gifts to the people. However, Michal, his wife, was displeased with some of his gestures during this occasion, and brought trouble between them and resentment from the Lord for his behavior. Therefore, Michal became barren because of this situation.

2 Samuel 4:4, “And Jonathan, Saul's son, had a son that was lame of his feet. He was five years old when the tidings came of Saul and Jonathan out of Jezreel, and his nurse took him up, and fled: and it came to pass, as she made haste to flee, that he fell, and became lame. And his name was Mephibosheth.”

2 Samuel 9:6, “Now when Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, the son of Saul, was come unto David, he fell on his face, and did reverence. And David said, Mephibosheth. And he answered, Behold thy servant!” 2 Samuel 9:10, “Thou therefore, and thy sons, and thy servants, shall till the land for him, and thou shalt bring in the fruits, that thy master's son may have food to eat: but Mephibosheth thy master's son shall eat bread alway at my table. Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants.”

2 Samuel 9:11-13, “Then said Ziba unto the king, According to all that my lord the king hath commanded his servant, so shall thy servant do. As for Mephibosheth, said the king, he shall eat at my table, as one of the king's sons. And Mephibosheth had a young son, whose name was Micha. And all that dwelt in the house of Ziba were servants unto Mephibosheth. So Mephibosheth dwelt in Jerusalem: for he did eat continually at the king's table; and was lame on both his feet.”

2 Samuel 16:1, 4, “And when David was a little past the top of the hill, behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred loaves of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine. 4 Then said the king to Ziba, Behold, thine are all that pertained unto Mephibosheth. And Ziba said, I humbly beseech thee that I may find grace in thy sight, my lord, O king.”

2 Samuel 19:24-25, 30, “And Mephibosheth the son of Saul came down to meet the king, and had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from the day the king departed until the day he came again in peace. And it came to pass, when he was come to Jerusalem to meet the king, that the king said unto him, Wherefore wentest not thou with me, Mephibosheth? 30 And Mephibosheth said unto the king, Yea, let him take all, forasmuch as my lord the king is come again in peace unto his own house.”

2 Samuel 21:7-8, “But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, because of the LORD'S oath that was between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul. But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite.”

1 Kings

It is believed that Jeremiah was the author of 1 Kings. 1 Kings covers about 125 years of Israel’s History, from the time of Solomon to the captivity by Babylon. Israel’s greatest wealth came while Solomon was reigning as King. David reigned for 40 years before Solomon became King! Solomon had Adonijah put to death because he tried to take the kingdom away from him.

Anointing of Solomon

A. Zadok a priest B. Nathan a prophet C. Benaiah Captain of the guard

Choices Solomon was given

   A. Wisdom
   B. Long life
   C. Riches
   D. The lives of his enemies

What was good about Solomon choosing wisdom (which was probably what God wanted him to choose), was that God gave him the rest of the gifts. Of course, naturally speaking (in our understanding), wisdom makes the most sense; because with wisdom, you can obtain riches and long life, as well as know how to deal with your enemies. It was a “wise choice” for Solomon to choose wisdom!

He began building the Temple during the fourth year of his reign, and it took him seven years to complete it.

The wives of Solomon became Solomon’s downfall (especially because they were strange women), because he submitted to the heathen religions that these wives were following. He went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, as well as Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. This was the appearance of evil in the site of the Lord. He even went as far as building a high place for Chemosh, the abomination of moab, for Molech as well, who was the abomination of the children of Ammon, and lastly for all his strange wives. God threatened his reign, as Solomon had fallen into idolatry.

After the death of Solomon, Rehoboam became King, and he placed greater and higher taxes on the people.Jeroboam takes advantage of the strife in the Nation over high taxes and takes 10 of the tribes for his Kingdom and makes Israel into two Nations. The result? Rehoboam reigned over the Southern Kingdom and Jeroboam over the Northern Kingdom. Rehoboam’s son, Abijam, was the next wicked ruler. He served only three years and was succeeded by Asa, a reformer. At the end of Asa’s reign, he stole from the Temple treasures for a bribe and died of diseased feet. He is remembered as one who sought the physicians and not the Lord. Ahab was known as the one who had angered God the most. Jezebel introduced Israel to much idolatry and evil, which included Baal worship. Later, Elijah, the prophet, announced that Ahab must die violently, and his wife, Jezebel, would be eaten by dogs for her part in it.

A closer look

“And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will not forsake my people Israel.” -1 Kings 6:13

We see in chapter 1 that there is an account of the infirmities of David, as he gets older. The preparation of his son Adonijah was made to seize the throne. Bathsheba addresses the king upon this, which was in favor of her son, Solomon, to which Nathan the prophet, seconded the notion. When Solomon was confirmed to succeed in the kingdom, Nathan the prophet and Zadok the priest were commanded to anoint him, which was done with a great ceremony. The news was brought to Adonijah and his friends, which caused them to have terror in the situation, and therefore, they went away. Adonijah made a promise that he would behave well to Solomon, so he was pardoned and dismissed.

In chapter 2, we see that David gives a charge to Solomon, which was before his death, to walk in the ways of the Lord. Some instructions were also given to him concerning people that he should respect or disregard.

We see in chapter 8 the account of the introducing of the Ark into the Temple, to which the glory of the Lord would fill it. Solomon gave a speech to the people concerning the building of the Temple, as well as prayers and defining of provisions for it. He hopes the people of Israel would be blessed, so he exhorts them, and throws a feast. At the “Holy of Holies”, the priests were not able to minister due to the presence of God. In Chapter 8, when the Ark was carried into the Holy of Holies, because God’s presence was so strong, the priests could not stand to minister.

We see in 1 Kings 12 the sins that Jeroboam caused for Israel involved corrupting the worship of God by instituting golden calves as objects of divine ordination. Next, he changed the place of service from Jerusalem to Bethel and Dan, so it was more convenient. After that, he appointed priests from among tribes other than Levi (which was unauthorized, because the Law did not “cover it.” Lastly, he changed the time of the Feast of Tabernacles from the seventh month, fifteenth day, to the eighth month, fifteenth day. To sum it up, Jeroboam changed the object, place, priesthood, and time of worship for Israel, which was all part of an idolatrous sin.

We see the start of the narrative of Elijah in 1 Kings 17, where there is a prophecy of Elijah that there should be want of rain for many years, and he is directed to go first to Cherith (a brook), where he should be fed by ravens. After that, he is sent to a widow, which was at Zarephath, where he, she, and her son are supported with provisions of meal and oil. The son of the woman is falling sick and dying, but then he is restored to life through Elijah.

In chapter 18, we see that Elijah has an order from the Lord to appear before Ahab, who is meeting with a servant of his named Obadiah, to which he charges him to tell his master his whereabouts, so that he can meet him. Upon meeting him, he desires that all Israel and the prophets of Baal be convened, to which he rebukes them for their idolatry, mockery, and troubling of Israel. God is the true God, as declared, on which all the prophets of Baal were slain (they killed in the name of God…how troubling that is too). Rain in great abundance was given at the prayer of Elijah.

Going forward to chapter 19, Elijah is fleeing for his life per the threats of Jezebel; however, the Lord took care of him, provided for him, and gave him strength so he could get to Horeb. The Lord appeared there and talked to him, to whom he gave instructions to anoint a king over Syria, another over Israel, and a prophet in his room. When he finds Elisha, he is to throw his mantle over Elisha, who becomes a servant.

Lastly, in chapter 21, we see Elijah meeting with Ahab in the vineyard, to which, Elijah denounced the judgments of God upon him and Jezebel for his injustice, however, Ahab humbled himself and dropped manner of evil.

2 Kings

“But the LORD your God ye shall fear; and he shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies.” -2 Kings 17:39

The authorship of 2 Kings is credited to Jeremiah. The record of 27 Kings of Israel and Judah is given in this book and nearly 12 books of the prophets were written during this period. The restoration of the Temple took place during Joash’s reign, but later he was despised by the people for trying to buy peace by giving the Temple treasure to the Syrians. The death of Elisha the prophet came during the reign of Joash in Israel. During the reign of Ahaz in Judah, all manner of restoration and extension were restored, and the prophet Isaiah ministered in Jerusalem during his days. In 721 B.C. the Northern Kingdom of Israel made up of ten tribes came to an end and they were taken into captivity in the area now known as Persia. The prophet Isaiah was at the right hand of King Hezekiah of Judah.

The angel of the Lord killed 185,000 Assyrians in one night. King Josiah recovered the Book of the Law known as The Pentateuch. The great Babylonian Empire builder was Nebuchadnezzar II and Judah fell into his hands in 606 B.C. when Judah as a state ended. The Babylonians destroyed the Temple and Jerusalem, this marked the end of its 400 year history. For 70 years, the Jews were in captivity in Babylon.

General background

2:1-2: This shows that Elijah shall be taken up into heaven by a whirlwind, and therefore, he told Elisha to stay with him, because the Lord had sent Elijah to Bethel. Elisha promised not to leave him, but to go with him.

2:7-11: Elijah is seen taking the mantle, wrapping it together, smiting the waters, and they were divided – so that him and Elisha could proceed on dry ground. Elijah offered to do something for Elisha before he was to part, and Elisha requested a double portion of his spirit. Elijah acknowledge it would be difficult, but it would be dependent (on the Lord’s power?) on whether Elisha saw him afterward or not. Elijah then ascends into a whirlwind to heaven.

9:30-35: Jezebel is shown here mocking in fear, for her heart was hardened against God. She planned to continue braving it, seducing others to wickedness. However, her attendants delivered her up to be put to death, and it was the end of pride and cruelty.

Dynasties of Israel: Ahaziah, Joram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, Jehoash, Jeroboam II, Shallum, Menahem, Pekah, Pekahiah, and Hoshea. (Zechariah was one of them, but we don’t see info on him in 2 Kings.)

Dynasties of Judah: Jehoram, Ahaziah, Athaliah, Joash, Amaziah, Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah.

1 Chronicles

“Be of good courage, and let us behave ourselves valiantly for our people, and for the cities of our God: and let the LORD do that which is good in his sight.” -1 Chronicles 19:13

The Chronicles in Hebrew is, “Dibrei hayyamin,” meaning, “words of our day.” The Chronicles in Greek is, “Paraleipomena,” meaning, “things omitted.” The Chronicles in Latin is, “Chronicon,” which is how English gets the word, “Chronicles.”

Jacob's 12 sons: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin.

David's 6 sons: Amnon (by Ahinoam), Daniel (by Abigail), Absalom (by Maachiah), Adonijah (by Haggith), Shephatiah (by Abital), and Ithream (by Eglah).

The first priests to return from Babylon were Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, and Jachin. It goes on… Azariah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the son of Pashur, the son of Malchijah, Maasiai the son of Adiel, the son of Jahzerah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Meshillemith, and the son of Immer. More were noted in large numbers but not listed here.

The first Levites to return from Babylon were Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, of the sons of Merari, Bakbakkar, Heresh, Galal, Mattaniah the son of Micah, the son of Zichri, the son of Asaph, Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun, Berechia the son of Asa, and the son of Elkanah.

Saul asked the armor-bearer plainly to kill him by drawing his sword and thrusting it into him, but the armor-bearer refused, therefore, Saul took the sword and fell upon it instead. His armor-bearer was likely so dedicated to him that he didn’t want to kill Saul, but when Saul killed himself, the armor-bearer did it the same way unto himself. It says after that, that Saul and his three sons died (all his house overall) together. The Philistines had already slew Jonathan and the sons of Saul, so Saul probably became hopeless because all those that were close to him had died, therefore, Saul didn’t want to live on, it seems.

David is made king, by which the government was happy about. Care is taken about religion in chapter 13, where David consults with the representatives of the people about bring the ark out of obscurity and into a public place. When the ark finally arrives after the trouble that was caused, guardians were appointed over the ark to watch it. David appointed various officials to lead worship. David proposed to build a house for God, however, God disapproved it, for David was not the right man to build it. This is all in preparation of the Davidic Covenant, to which, the house of David shall be established for ever, and he was blessed. The Davidic line shall be eternal, and I believe Jesus is at the forefront.

   • David is tempted by Satan and forces Joab to start numbering Israel.
   • The number of the people being brought causes David to repent.
   • David had three plagues as a choice by God, and David chose pestilence rather than war or famine.
       ◦ The pestilence killed 70,000.
   • David repented, which prevented the destruction of Jerusalem.
   • Gad directed David to purchase Ornan’s threshing floor so an altar can be built. God gives a sign of favor for it by fire.
   • David sacrifices there, but was then afraid to continue, because of the sword of the angel of the Lord.
   • David has a solemn assembly, where he declares God’s favor to him, and makes a promise to his son Solomon – as well as exhorting him to fear God.
   • He encourages Solomon to build the temple.
   • He gives Solomon patterns, gold, and silver as provision.

The book of 1 Chronicles is a bit of a repeat from what we see in Samuels and Kings, but there are some excellent things in this book that define it differently. We see the rise of the Jewish people from Adam, fully detailed in a genealogy, to which, afterward, it gives an account of the reign of David. We see, overall, in this book the genealogies of the tribes of Israel, the reign of David detailed, and the preparations being made for the temple.

David seemed to end his good kingship with glory, so to speak, because he had a praise and prayer speech, people offered gifts and sacrifices to God, and then his own son, Solomon is sworn in as new King. That would be a fitting ceremony, and an excellent way to end a kingly reign.

Why Reuben lost his birthright

As we can see, Reuben is the first-born of Israel, but he forfeited his birthright by defiling his father’s concubine, and was sentenced not to excel. The violation of the seventh commandment caused many problems for Reuben, and therefore, caused the degradation of his birthright. Therefore, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph, and genealogy not reckoned after the birthright.

David's warriors

The chief was Ahiezer. Then, Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite, Jeziel, Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth, Berachah, Jehu the Antothite, Ismaiah the Gibeonite, Jeremiah, Jahaziel, Johanan, Josabad the Gederathite, Eluzai, Jerimoth, Bealiah, Shemariah, Shephatiah the Haruphite, Elkanah, Jesiah, Azareel, Joezer, Jashobeam, Korhites, Joelah, Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham of Gedor, Ezer, Obadiah, Eliab, Mishmannah, Jeremiah, Attai, Eliel, Johanan, Elzabad, Jeremiah, and Machbanai.

These men appeared and acted as David’s friends/warriors, which was upon the death of Saul, in order to bring about the revolution. All of the forces were around 600 men. They claim to be ones helping God. Gradually, David was preparing to take the throne. These are the men who helped David become King of Judah. This gathering was about him getting ready to take the throne.

The Ark

   • The ark comes to Jerusalem
       ◦ The ark had lay forgotten in a country house, before David set out to restore it to its rightful place in Jerusalem.
       ◦ Celebration accompanied the procession.
       ◦ David appointed various officials to lead worship, and arrangements were made for future public worship.
       ◦ A psalm of thanksgiving is recorded in celebration of the ark’s arrival. God’s people were urged to praise Him and proclaim His mighty acts.
       ◦ Being brought to Jerusalem, the ark was placed in a tent that David prepared and then appointed temple servants to remain with the ark to guide worship. Priests were put in charge of worship at the tabernacle, which was still in Gibeon.
   • Permanent house for the Ark and God
       ◦ David planned on a permanent dwelling place for the ark in Jerusalem, and wanted to build a house for God.
       ◦ God rather wanted to build a house for David, which was an eternal dynasty; a line of royal descendants – one of whom would build the temple.
       ◦ Listing all of the victories, the writers seem to determine that God didn’t want David to start the Temple, because of all the bloodshed he had caused.
   • David’s fame and other info was noted.
       ◦ Various victories over enemies were noted.
       ◦ David bought the ground, in which the Temple would be built.

2 Chronicles

“And the fear of God was on all the kingdoms of those countries, when they had heard that the LORD fought against the enemies of Israel.” -2 Chronicles 20:29

Solomon is the third king of Israel, to which, the book begins talking about. He reigned for 81 years after the Kingdom was established and was the first of David’s descendants to reign. For the next 513, David’s descendants reigned unbroken. In 2 Chronicles we see the beginning of the priestly responsibilities and Ecclesiastical order. The Temple was made as sacred as possible, with all the decorative furniture and “heavenly” things added to make it appear more holy. Since it was wonderfully made, and now that God has established his Temple within us instead of a building, we are fearfully and wonderfully made.

Solomon's wealth

Solomon had 1,400 chariots and 12,000 horsemen. He made silver and gold at Jerusalem that was as much as stones (which probably means quite a bit), and cedar trees he had. A chariot out of Egypt brought 600 shekels of silver, and a horse for 150 (horses were brought for all the kings of the Hittites and the Kings of Syria).

1:11-12 says, “And God said to Solomon, Because this was in thine heart, and thou hast not asked riches, wealth, or honour, nor the life of thine enemies, neither yet hast asked long life; but hast asked wisdom and knowledge for thyself, that thou mayest judge my people, over whom I have made thee king: Wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee; and I will give thee riches, and wealth, and honour, such as none of the kings have had that have been before thee, neither shall there any after thee have the like.”

Queen of Sheba heard about Solomon’s fame, and therefore, visited him. She admired his wisdom, and blessed him with her words. She saw that God blessed him, and that he was working for the glory of God, for God had loved Israel. She gave him 120 talents of gold, spices in great abundance, precious stones, and other gifts were brought as well. Therefore, King Solomon gave to the queen all that she desired or asked, and then she left.

2 Chronicles 5:11-14

God had taken possession of the Temple and filled it with a cloud signifying the acceptance of it. He assured the people that it would be the same as it was in the Tabernacle of Moses. People had worshiped the Lord and the glory of Him filled the place.


   • Rehoboam – He was made king, and a relaxation was requested for him. He also refused counsel from the old men, but in the end, raised an army to subdue Israel.
   • Abijah – He was the son of Rehoboam and inherited his throne. He warred against Jeroboam and overcame him by trusting in God.
   • (Jeroboam – a King of Israel, who was shown warring with several kings of Judah.)
   • Asa was king after Abijah, to which, he was most known for destroying idolatry, promoting peace, and putting his faith in God.
   • Jehoshaphat was made king after him, to which, he sent Levites with the princes to teach Judah, was feared by the nations, and joined up with Ahab to be against Ramoth-gilead.
   • Jehoram is made king after him, and ruled wickedly – to which, a prophecy was made against him by Elijah, the Philistines and Arabians oppress him, and he had an incurable disease that brought death.
   • Ahaziah, another wicked king, takes the throne, to which he made confederacy with Joram the son of Ahab, and was then slain by Jehu.
   • Athaliah came in and usurped the kingdom, destroying the entire seed royal, and saving Joash.
   • Joash was made king, and soon after, Athaliah is slain. He reigned well, fell into idolatry, and slayed Zechariah.
   • Amaziah succeeded him on the throne. He began by slaying his father’s murderers, hired an army of Israelites against the Edomites, and successfully overthrew the Edomites.
   • Uzziah is then made king, and reigned well. He invaded the priest’s office and was smitten with leprosy.
   • Jotham succeeded Uzziah, to which, he was a prosperous king, but with little Scriptural record.
   • Ahaz was the next king, in which, he reigned in a bad way. He asked for help from the king of Assyria against the Philistines and Edomites, but to no avail. He was heavily involved in idolatry.
   • Hezekiah then took the throne after him. He restored religion, offered solemn sacrifices, and sung with praise. Also, he destroyed the altars of idolatry.
   • Manasseh would succeed him, and was wicked. Even so, he believed in God, and prayed – still dealing with idolatry.
   • Amon would reign shortly. He was slain by his servants (Amon was usually found guilty of trespassing), which ended his kingship quickly.


Josiah was best known for having a good reign starting at eight years old and being right in the eyes of the Lord. He walked in the ways of David, his father. He chose to destroy idolatry, which involved purging Judah and Jerusalem of all high places, carved images, and other molten images and groves. He also takes order of the repair of the Temple. Hilkiah the priest found the Book of the Law, and therefore, the king asked that people do after all that is written in the book. Finally, he makes a covenant with the Lord to walk after Him, keep His commandments, His testimonies, His statutes with all of his heart and soul. He desired to keep the words of the covenant, which are in the book. He led others to believe in God and never to depart from Him!

Other kings

This chapter, 36 of 2 Chronicles, records the reigns of the four kings of Judah and the captivity of the Jews. It records the short reign of Jehoahaz, the reign of Jehoiakim, the reign of Jehoiachin (son of Jehoiakim), and the reign of Zedekiah. Jehoahaz was deposed by the king of Egypt, Jehoiakim was carried away by Nebuchadnezzar, Jehoiachin was carried away like his father was to Babylon, and Zedekiah rebelled against the King of Babylon – to which he and his people were taken and carried captive by him for his sins. The chapter concludes with the proclamation of Cyrus, King of Persia, about Jeremiah’s prophecy being potentially accomplished.


“Now when Ezra had prayed, and when he had confessed, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there assembled unto him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children: for the people wept very sore.” –Ezra 10:1

The Book of Ezra deals with the restoration of Judah to the Land of Canaan. The purposes of the Book of Ezra involve the recording of the first national regathering of Israel after the first dispersion among the Gentiles and it shows the problems connected with the new revival of religion conforming to the Law of Moses (inter-marrying heathens). The return of the Jews from Babylon was under Zerubbabel and Ezra. Out of jealousy, the Samaritans did all they could to stop the restoration of Jerusalem and the Temple. A decree was granted by King Artaxerxes to stop work on the Temple. Work was suspended for 16 years. ding of the Temple resumed through the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. The Temple was completed in the year, 516 B.C.

Ezra exhorted the people to put away strange wives and all corrupting influences and to return to a state of purity. The result of obedience to his exhortation was that it could clear the way for God to use the nation to affect His good pleasure.

King Cyrus of Persia had hoped that the prophecy by Jeremiah might be fulfilled, so he made a proclamation, which involved building a house at Jerusalem (in Judah). The chief of the fathers of Judah and Benjamin, as well as the priests and Levites, went to go build the house of the Lord. Vessels were brought and placed in the house of his gods. When the seventh month came, people gathered themselves as one in Jerusalem, and an altar was built to offer burnt offerings as it is written in the Law of Moses. They praised and worshiped God in the house.

Isaiah's prophecy in Isaiah 44:28 and 45:1

The prophecy was that King Cyrus would be a shepherd performing His pleasure, to which, he shall say to Jerusalem be built, and to the Temple would the foundation be laid. He is to also subdue nations before him, and the power of kings will be weakened so that he is made to be conqueror.

Historical details

In chapter 7, we see Ezra’s genealogy. We also see the priests, Levites, and Ezra going up to Jerusalem, which involves the commission of Artaxerxes to Ezra. Ezra also blesses God for his favor to the people. In chapter 8, we see Ezra’s companions returning from Babylon. He sends Levites to Iddo to be ministers for the Temple, keeps a fast at Ahava (for a safe and prosperous journey), and committed the treasures to the custody of the priests. After Ahava, they go to Jerusalem, where the treasure is weighed in the Temple. Lastly, the commission is delivered to their adversaries, and they further the house of God (by making sacrifices).

After Ezra prayed and confessed, it was proposed by Shechaniah that those who had married strange wives should put them away with their children – to which, they had sworn to do so. A proclamation is made through the land for a meeting at Jerusalem in three days – to which, they attended. At exhortation from Ezra, all had agreed to do it, and there were persons set up to see it done. The work was completed in three months, and a list of names of them are given who married strangely and now put away – which were of the priests, Levites, and other Israelites.


Nehemiah was filled with sorrow because the walls of Jerusalem were broken down and gates were burned. The King was concerned about Nehemiah’s sadness and allowed him to return to Jerusalem for the purpose of going back and helping to rebuild Jerusalem. They accused Nehemiah of plotting a rebellion against Artaxerxes and wanting to make himself king.

It took 52 days to rebuild the walls. When the walls were completed, they were solemnly dedicated and guarded continually. Jews failed to keep the Sabbath Day holy. The Levites neglected their duties because they were not receiving their promised portions. The people were inter-marrying with foreigners. Nehemiah reforms separated/cleansed the Israelites from foreigners.


“As the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.” –Esther 9:22


“Then Esther bade them return Mordecai this answer, Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish. So Mordecai went his way, and did according to all that Esther had commanded him.”

Closer look

In chapters 5-10, Esther invited the king and Haman to a couple of dinners, in hope to get favor from one or both of them. Haman was positive about the queen, likely flattered that he may have gotten the queen’s approval for killing the Jews. Haman then asked for a royal favor, in hopes to get Mordecai killed right away. However, when Haman made the request to the king, the king was hesitant because Mordecai had saved his life at an earlier time. The king wanted to reward Mordecai, as we see in chapter six. However, Haman didn’t know about the reward, it seems, so Haman was astonished that the honor would go to Mordecai (not execution). Haman was humiliated and felt betrayed by the royal family. Later that night, another dinner was between the king, queen, and Haman, where Esther brought the case before the king that Haman had been plotting to kill the Jews (admitting she was also Jewish) and killing her, and therefore the king was angry because of it. Haman began weeping with anguish before the king, which was interpreted by the king as rape or other form of tactic by Haman to hurt the queen. Therefore, the king wanted Haman immediately executed.

Next, we see Mordecai promoted to chief minister. However, the king’s decree (from Haman’s proposal to kill the Jews) was still intact, but the king gave Mordecai and the queen power to counteract it with a new decree. Therefore, they acted promptly, and gave the Jews permission to do anything they could to defend themselves against attacks on the day (of war against them). When the day came for the Jews to be attacked, only a few of the enemies actually attacked them. However, the Jews fought hard, it seems, and were even given an extra day to defend themselves and get revenge on the enemies. After the Jews won (and survived by the grace of God), a feast was thrown in celebration (which was done every year after that, as well). The book concluded quickly by talking about the reign of Mordecai, and how he helped the Jewish people under his leadership. Mordecai continued rule for many years.